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Czech and Slovakian immigrants Published: October 3, 2011

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, about one-sixteenth of all European Czechs immigrated to America, while the Slovaks made up the sixthlargest group of immigrants during this period of the “new immigration.”

Cultural pluralism Published: October 3, 2011

As a concept cultural pluralism is an alternative to the “melting pot” view that immigrants should assimilate to American culture by abandoning their own cultures, languages, and other traditions.

Cuban immigrants Published: September 30, 2011

The overwhelming majority of Cubans who have immigrated into the United States have settled in Florida, whose political, economic, and cultural life they have transformed.

Criminal immigrants Published: September 30, 2011

Over time the federal government has passed numerous laws and increased enforcement efforts to thwart the entry of criminal immigrants and to make it easier to deport alien criminals who are in the country, including those who have committed their crimes after arriving. 

Crime Published: September 30, 2011

The development of organized criminal activities among certain ethnic groups has perpetuated the notion that undesirable elements of society have been disproportionately represented among new immigrant populations in the United States.

Credit-ticket system Published: September 27, 2011

During the mid- to late nineteenth century, the fares Chinese immigrants crossing the Pacific Ocean to the United States paid ranged from fifteen to forty-five dollars—amounts that few Chinese workers could afford.

Coolies Published: September 27, 2011

Chinese coolies came to the United States both as free immigrants looking for work and as contract workers hired to build America’s first transcontinental railroad.

Contract labor system Published: September 27, 2011

During the mid-nineteenth century, a labor shortage in the western United States led to creation of a contract labor system to help the mining and railroad industries attract cheap immigrant labor to the United States.

U.S. Constitution Published: September 27, 2011

As the fundamental law of the United States, the U.S. Constitution empowers the U.S. Congress to pass federal immigration and citizenship laws providing such laws do not violate the provisions of the Constitution itself, particularly those included in the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment.

Connecticut Published: September 27, 2011

Immigrants contributed heavily to the growth of Connecticut’s labor unions.

U.S. Congress Published: September 27, 2011

Since 1875, Congress has played the major role in determining U.S. immigration law and policy.

U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform Published: September 27, 2011

The U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform was the most far-reaching body charged with examining immigration legislation during the last decade of the twentieth century.


U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Published: September 27, 2011

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is a federal commission tasked with protecting the civil rights of all people residing in the United States.

Colorado Published: September 27, 2011

Colorado has a unique immigration history that has been affected by its mining, agriculture, and tourism industries.

Colombian immigrants Published: September 27, 2011

Although Colombian immigrants are relative newcomers to the United States, their numbers began increasing greatly during the last decades of the twentieth century.

U.S. Coast Guard Published: September 27, 2011

The United States Coast Guard is a unique multimission, maritime agency categorized as one of five branches of the U.S. armed forces.

Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles Published: September 26, 2011

Since its creation, the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA) has worked as an immigrant advocacy group with Southern California’s Los Angeles County.

Coal industry Published: September 26, 2011

The American coal industry relied heavily on immigrant labor during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

CLOTILDE slave ship Published: September 26, 2011

The case of the Clotilde marks the end of successful slave trading by American vessels and is notable both for the evasion of U.S. Navy patrols attempting to interdict such voyages and the eventual failure of the federal government to successfully prosecute those responsible.

Liz Claiborne Published: September 26, 2011

One of the most successful female entrepreneurs in American business history, Belgian-born Claiborne founded Liz Claiborne, Inc., in 1976.


U.S. Civil War Published: September 26, 2011

Immigrants played leading roles in the Civil War and the reconstruction of the South. Apart from slavery, few issues were as important in Civil War America as immigrants and immigration policy.

Civil Rights movement Published: September 26, 2011

The U.S. government’s policies regarding immigration have historically reflected prevailing racial and cultural biases held by Americans with the most power. 

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Published: September 26, 2011

The mandate given to this federal bureau was to establish immigration services, policies, and priorities that preserve the United States as a nation of immigrants by ensuring that no one is admitted into the country who may threaten public safety.

Citizenship Published: September 26, 2011

Under the U.S. Constitution and laws of the United States, the status of citizenship entitles possessors, whether native born or naturalized, to all established civil rights and also includes the duty of rendering allegiance to the country.

Citizens Committee to Repeal Chinese Exclusion Published: September 22, 2011

Made up of a relatively small group of notable public figures, this ad hoc organization successfully leveraged its influence to persuade other organizations and members of the public to lobby Congress for the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

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