The election of John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, as president in 1960 marked both an ethnic victory—80 percent of both Catholics and Jews voted for him, but only 38 percent of Protestants—and the beginning of the end of the old age of European immigration.
The Irish were the first of Europe’s many impoverished peoples to seek economic advantages in the New World in large numbers in the 19th century, providing one of the great immigration streams to both Canada and the United States.
Unlike some other Muslim groups, Iraqis had little exposure to Western culture before immigrating to North America in the wake of the first Persian Gulf War (1991) and therefore had more difficulty assimilating.
Founded in 1900 in New York City, the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) was remarkably successful in forcing adoption of sanitary codes and safety regulations and achieving better pay during the first two decades of the 20th century.
Indentured servitude as a means of colonization or immigration is a labor system in which a laborer agrees to provide labor exclusively for one employer for a fixed number of years in return for his or her travel, living expenses and often some financial consideration at the end of service.
In the wake of massive refugee crises in Southeast Asia and Cuba, in 1981, a Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy recommended to the U.S. Congress that undocumented aliens be granted amnesty and that sanctions be imposed on employers who hired undocumented workers.
After many years of heated debate and the shock of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, in 2002 the Canadian parliament passed the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), replacing the Immigration Act of 1976.
With its decision in Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated the legislative veto that had enabled the U.S. Congress, in negotiation with the executive branch, to veto certain executive actions.
From 1933 to 2003, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was the agency of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for enforcing immigration laws, administering immigration benefits, and, in conjunction with the Department of State, admitting and resettling refugees.
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1965 marked a dramatic change in American immigration policy, abandoning the concept of national quotas and establishing the basis for extensive immigration from the developing world.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the investigative arm of the Border and Transportation Security Directorate (BTS), and it operates under the jurisdiction of the DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (DHS).