The Fenians began a secular nationalistic revolutionary tradition in Ireland that aimed at freeing Ireland from British control.
This racially motivated attack on Filipino farmworkers was one of the first of several similar attacks in central California’s agricultural centers.
The development of organized criminal activities among certain ethnic groups has perpetuated the notion that undesirable elements of society have been disproportionately represented among new immigrant populations in the United States.
The secret societies founded in China several centuries ago to combat unjust rulers often turned to criminality. During the mid-nineteenth century, following the discovery of gold in California, many members of these societies emigrated to the United States.